Skip to main content

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that is believed to infect cells in the immune system. Without proper treatment, HIV can lead to severe weakening of the immune system. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the most prevalent, accounting for approximately 95 % of HIV infections globally.

What is HIV-1?

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is the virus responsible for most HIV infections around the world. It attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which are crucial for fighting infections. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and diseases. This leads to the most severe phase of HIV infection, known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

What are the Symptoms of HIV-1?

Some people develop flu-like symptoms approximately 2-4 weeks after being infected with HIV-1. These symptoms can include:

  • Rash
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Fatigue
  • Night sweats
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Mouth sores
  • Muscle aches and pains

It’s important to understand that not everyone who contracts HIV will show symptoms. As a result, some individuals may be unaware they are living with the virus. In fact, it’s estimated that 1 in 7 people with HIV are unaware of their infection.

What Causes HIV-1?

HIV-1 is transmitted through contact with bodily fluids containing the virus. This can occur when these fluids come into contact with blood or mucous membranes, such as those in the genitals, anus, or mouth.
HIV-1 can be transmitted through various bodily fluids. These include:

  • Semen
  • Blood
  • Rectal fluids
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Breast milk
  • Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum)

HIV-1 can spread through several common routes of transmission.

  • Through vaginal or anal sex without a condom
  • By reusing/sharing needles or injection drug equipment
  • When an HIV-positive mother does not receive antiretroviral therapy, there is a risk of transmitting the virus to her
  • Child during pregnancy, childbirth, or through breastfeeding.

HIV-1 can also be transmitted through less frequent methods. These include:

  • Oral sex
  • Deep, open-mouth kissing
  • Workplace incidents involving accidental needlesticks or injuries from sharp objects.
  • Undergoing a blood transfusion or receiving an organ transplant.
  • Getting a tattoo or piercing using equipment that hasn’t been adequately sterilized poses significant health risks
  • Injuries caused by human bites that puncture the skin

What are Common Risk Factors for HIV-1?

Certain actions can increase the likelihood of contracting HIV-1. These include:

  • Engaging in vaginal or anal sex without a condom
  • Having another sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as gonorrhea, syphilis, or herpes.
  • Working in a specific job where occupational exposure to HIV/AIDS may occur
  • Being subjected to a blood transfusion, organ transplant, or medical procedure that is unsafe or lacks proper sterilization.

Certain populations are disproportionately affected by HIV, according to data from the CDC, with these groups accounting for the majority of new HIV diagnoses:

  • Injection drug users
  • Transgender people
  • African Americans
  • Latinos
  • Men who have sex with men

How is HIV-1 Diagnosed?

HIV-1 diagnosis typically involves conducting tests using blood samples obtained either from a vein in the arm or through a finger prick. These tests are crucial in identifying the presence of the virus in individuals:

  • Antibody Tests: AIt is an antibody test that helps detect antibodies to HIV. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to combat foreign invaders like HIV. Many rapid or at-home HIV tests rely on detecting these antibodies.
  • Antigen/Antibody Tests: This test searches for both HIV antibodies and a viral protein known as p24. Detecting p24 is feasible even before antibodies are produced.
  • Nucleic Acid Tests (NATs): A NAT identifies the genetic material of the virus present in a blood sample, allowing for precise measurement of the viral load—the quantity of virus in the bloodstream.

The CDC suggests using an antigen/antibody test initially to diagnose HIV. If this test shows a positive result, further testing is done to confirm whether the infection is HIV-1 or HIV-2.

HIV Testing after Diagnosis: After receiving an HIV-1 diagnosis, additional tests are conducted regularly both during treatment and after to ensure comprehensive monitoring of the condition’s progression and treatment efficacy. These include:

  • Viral load: Viral load refers to the amount of HIV-1 virus present in a person’s bloodstream. Without treatment, this viral load tends to rise over time. However, using antiretroviral medications can effectively lower the viral load to levels that are so low they cannot be detected with standard tests.
  • CD4 count: A CD4 count measures the amount of CD4 cells present in a blood sample. Lower CD4 cell levels indicate impairment of the immune system.
  • Drug resistance testing: HIV-1 can sometimes become resistant to some types of antiretroviral medicines. Because of this, drug resistance testing is considered to help inform which antiretroviral medicine can be used for treatment.

The Role of Raltegravir: An Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the use of HIV medicinal products to treat HIV infection. People on ART take a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV treatment regimen) every day. ART can’t cure HIV, but HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. ART also reduces the risk of HIV transmission.

Raltegravir- A Key Player in HIV Treatment: Raltegravir, an antiretroviral drug is available under both generically and brand-name medicine. It is supplied at a dosage strength of 400 mg and in the form of tablets for oral use. Raltegravir 400 mg tablet is widely used for the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection. It belongs to a class of medications known as integrase inhibitors.

How Raltegravir Works: HIV needs to insert its genetic material into a human cell’s DNA to replicate and spread. Raltegravir works by inhibiting the action of integrase, an enzyme HIV uses to insert its viral DNA into the DNA of the host cell. By blocking this enzyme, Raltegravir prevents HIV from multiplying, which reduces the viral load in the body.

Recommended Dosage: For adults, the standard recommended dosage of Raltegravir is:

  • 400 mg taken twice daily.

Alternatively, in some cases:

  • 1200 mg (two 600 mg tablets) once daily.

It’s essential to follow the prescribed dosage and consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

Benefits of Raltegravir 400 mg Tablets:

  • Effective Viral Suppression: Raltegravir is highly effective in reducing the viral load in the blood, helping to keep the immune system stronger.
  • Fewer Side Effects: Compared to some other HIV medications, Raltegravir is often better tolerated with fewer side effects.
  • Combination Therapy: Raltegravir is usually taken as part of a combination therapy, which is more effective in controlling HIV than single-drug treatments.

Where to Buy Generic Raltegravir Online from India?

Access to affordable HIV medications, including Raltegravir, is critical for individuals worldwide. Indian Generic Medicines (IGM) offers a reliable option to buy generic Raltegravir tablets online at competitive prices. Generic medications are bioequivalent to their brand-name counterparts, meaning they contain the same active ingredients and undergo rigorous testing to ensure safety and efficacy. Kindly Call/WhatsApp: +91 8130290915 or dial TOLL-FREE: 1800-889-1064 to place your order. Buying generic Raltegravir from India through platforms like Indian Generic Medicines (IGM) provides several advantages such as affordability, quality assurance, and convenience.


Living with HIV-1 infection requires ongoing treatment and management. The medicine Raltegravir plays a crucial role in the fight against HIV. It helps control the virus and improve the quality of life (QoL) for those infected. By inhibiting the integrase enzyme, this therapeutic drug prevents HIV from replicating and spreading, which makes it a vital component of antiretroviral therapy.

Leave a Reply

Close Menu
WhatsApp Email Phone